Water is a precious and vital resource of our ecosystems on which all life itself is based. We should manage it with cooperation and shared security.
Eneref-water-agra_3

AGRICULTURE

Agriculture accounts for 70% of global water withdrawal from our entire supply of fresh water. The UN predicts agriculture to remain biggest user of water into the middle of this century.

Eneref-water-indu_3

INDUSTRY

Water use by industry accounts for 20% of global withdrawals from freshwater supplies, and is dominated by energy production and manufacturing. Energy production alone accounts for 75%.

Eneref-water-muni_2

MUNICIPALITY

In less than 10 years, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world’s population could be living under water-stressed conditions.

Eneref Water Initiative

Here’s how people responded to water solutions.

Water must never be a reason for rivalry or competition. Water must be a source of cooperation and of shared security and prosperity

Jan Eliasson - United Nations Deputy Secretary-General View report here

If carbon is the currency of climate change, water is the teeth. The ecosystems on which life itself is based – our food security, energy sustainability, public health, jobs, cities – are all at risk because of how water is managed today.

Jim Yong Kim - President The World Bank Group View report here

We should never face the scenario of the last single drop of water in our lifetime and for generations to come.

Cyril Ramaphosa - President, H. E. South Africa View report here

If the wars of this century were fought over oil, the wars of the next century will be fought over water -- unless we change our approach to managing this precious and vital resource.

Ismail Serageldin - World Bank Vice President for Environmental Affairs View report here

Agriculture

It typically takes 3,000 – 5,000 liters of water to produce 1 kg of rice, 2,000 liters for 1kg of soya, 900 liters for 1kg of wheat and 500 liters for 1kg of potatoes. The world is facing a water crisis. It is estimated that over 2 billion people are affected by water shortages in over 40 countries, and the extensive withdrawal of water for agriculture from the river, lakes, and aquifers results in limited supplies for other human needs, such as drinking, washing, cooking, and sanitation. According to the UN World Water Development Report, the average supply of water per person will drop by a third in the next two decades [source].

According to FAO, Agriculture must provide this increase against the decreasing availability of and competition for land and water from other uses, whether non food crops, urbanization or industrial development [source].

To produce more nutritious food with less water: Innovative technologies are required to ensure a greener and more sustainable food production. They are needed to improve crop yields; implement efficient irrigation strategies; reuse of drainage water and use of water resources of marginal quality; produce smarter ways to use fertilizer and water; improve crop protection; reduce post-harvest losses; and create more sustainable livestock and marine production [source].

According to World Bank, By 2050 the world will need to feed 9 billion people — 2 billion more than today’s population. This will result in a 50 percent increase in agricultural production and a 15 percent increase in already-strained water withdrawals. Already, the agricultural sector is by far the largest global user of water. Irrigated agriculture accounts for about 70 percent of total freshwater withdrawals worldwide. Yet, water is becoming increasingly scarce as a result of continued population growth, declining groundwater supplies and water quality issues. Climate change will worsen the situation by increasing water stress. Poorer countries contributing least to the problem will be most affected [source].

Industry

According to The United Nations World Water Development Report 2018, Water use by industry, which account for roughly 20% of global withdrawals, is dominated by energy production, which is responsible for approximately 75%, with the remaining 25% of industrial water withdrawals being used for manufacturing (WWAP, 2014) [source].

Municipality

According to United Nation, by 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world’s population could be living under water stressed conditions [source].

Domestic water use, which roughly accounts for10% of global water withdrawals, is expected to increase significantly over the 2010–2050 period in nearly all regions of the world. The United Nations World Water Development Report [source].

The ecosystems on which life itself is based – our food security, energy sustainability, public health, jobs, cities – are all at risk because of how water is managed today [source].

  1. When will we run out of water?

    In less than 10 years, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world’s population could be living under water-stressed conditions.

    2.1 billion People lack access to safely managed drinking water services. (WHO/UNICEF 2017)

    Water scarcity already affects four out of every 10 people. (WHO)

    80% of wastewater flows back into the ecosystem without being treated or reused (UNESCO, 2017).

  2. Is tap water safe to drink?

    Many contaminants that pose known human health risks are regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA makes sure that water meets certain standards, so you can be sure that high levels of contaminants are not in your water.

    According to a new NRDC report, nearly 77 million Americans got drinking water from systems that violated federal protections in 2015, and more than a third of this number relied on systems that did not comply with standards put in place to protect health. Millions of other Americans’ water suppliers failed to test water safety properly or didn’t report test results to health authorities or customers—potentially sweeping many more health risks under the rug.

  3. What are the major contaminates in water?

    There are three major types of contaminants that can pollute the water:

    Physical contaminants primarily impact the physical appearance or other physical properties of water. Examples of physical contaminants are sediment or organic material suspended in the water.

    Chemical contaminants are elements or compounds. These contaminants may be naturally occurring or man-made. Examples of chemical contaminants include nitrogen, bleach, salts, pesticides, metals, toxins produced by bacteria, and human or animal drugs.

    Biological contaminants are organisms in water. They are also referred to as microbes or microbiological contaminants. Examples of biological or microbial contaminants include bacteria, viruses, protozoan, and parasites.

  4. How do contaminants get into drinking water?

    There can be many sources of contamination of our water systems. Here is a list of the most common sources of contaminants:

    Naturally occurring chemicals and minerals (for example, arsenic, radon, uranium)

    Local land use practices (fertilizers, pesticides, livestock, concentrated animal feeding operations)

    Manufacturing processes.

    Sewer overflows.

    Malfunctioning wastewater treatment systems (for example, nearby septic systems).

  5. What is the largest use of water?

    In the US, the bathroom is the largest consumer of indoor water. More than 47% of water use in the average American home occurs in the bathroom, the toilet alone can use 27 percent of household water. Almost every activity or daily routine that happens in the home, bathroom uses a large quantity of water. For example:

    Older toilets use between 3.5 and 7 gallons of water per flush. A leaky toilet can waste about 200 gallons of water every day.

  6. How can we save water?

    A bathroom faucet generally runs at 2 gallons of water per minute. By turning off the tap while brushing your teeth or shaving, a person can save more than 200 gallons of water per month.

    Use efficient flushing toilets to avoid excesses waste of clean water. It takes about 70 gallons of water to fill a bathtub, so showers are generally the more water-efficient way to bath. Nearly 22% of indoor home water use comes from doing laundry. Save water by making sure to adjust the settings on your machine to the proper load size.

  7. Is drinking contaminated water dangerous?

    Worldwide, infectious diseases such as waterborne diseases are the number one killer of children under five years old and more people die from unsafe water annually than from all forms of violence, including war. (WHO 2002)

WEFTEC 2018

September 29 - October 3, 2018 New Orleans, Louisiana USA

2017: Climate Change Challenges Unique to Women and Water

According to UN organization, with the existing climate change scenario, almost half the world’s population will be living in areas of high water stress by 2030, including between 75 million and 250 million people in Africa. In addition, water scarcity in some arid and semi-arid places will displace between 24 million and 700 million people.