Transport can be an agent of sustained urban development that prioritizes goals for equity and emphasizes accessibility, traffic safety, and time-savings for the poor while reducing emissions, with minimal detriment to the environment and human health. Transformative trajectories vary with region and country due to differences in the dynamics of motorization, age, and type of vehicle fleets, existing infrastructure, and urban development processes. Prioritizing access to pedestrians and integrating non-motorized and public transit services can result in higher levels of economic and social prosperity in all regions. Good opportunities exist for both structural and technological change around low-carbon transport systems in most countries but particularly in fast-growing emerging economies where investments in mass transit and other low-carbon transport infrastructure can help avoid future locking to carbon-intensive modes. Mechanisms to accelerate the transfer and adoption of improved vehicle efficiency and low-carbon fuels to all economies, and reducing the carbon intensity of freight particularly in emerging markets, could offset much of the growth in non-OECD emissions by 2030.
According to the UN agency’s 2017 Measuring the Information Society report, harnessing the benefits of advances in the ‘Internet of Things’, big data, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence, countries will need to create conditions and infrastructures that allow these next-generation networks and services.